Cook the bacon in a large (at least 5 quart) Dutch oven or soup pot, stirring until the bacon is rendered and crisp, 6 to 7 minutes. Lift the bacon out of the pot and transfer to a plate, leaving the fat in the pot.
Reserve ⅓ cup each carrots and celery for later, then add the onions, carrots, and celery to the fat and cook, stirring, until the onions are golden and the carrots and celery soften, 6 to 7 minutes. Add the garlic and cook, stirring, 1 additional minute. Add the wine, raise the heat to medium high and cook until the wine is mostly evaporated, 6 to 7 minutes.
Add the stock, split peas, salt, and bay leaves, bring to a boil, reduce the heat to a simmer and cook, stirring once in a while, until the split peas break up and the liquid thickens, 1 hour 15 minutes. Remove and discard the bay leaves.
Use a stick blender to smooth out the soup (or carefully blend in batches in a blender and return to the pot), then add the reserved carrots and celery along with the ham. Bring to a boil, reduce the heat and cook, adding stock by the half cup as needed, until the carrots and celery are tender and the ham is cooked through, 20 to 30 minutes.
Season with more salt to taste, divide among bowls, dollop with sour cream, and garnish with the reserved bacon.